WASHINGTON, United States (CMC) — The International Monetary Fund (IMF) says its “Regional Economic Outlook for the Western Hemisphere” has marked down its growth forecasts for Latin America and the Caribbean to 1.2 per cent in 2018 and 2.2 per cent in 2019, from the May 2018 forecasts of 2.0 per cent and 2.8 per cent, respectively.
“The moderating recovery is underpinned by divergent growth outcomes across the region,” the Washington-based financial institution said on Wednesday.
In some of the region’s largest economies, it said the recovery has slowed sharply, “as country-specific characteristics amplify the impact of growing trade tensions and tightening monetary conditions”.
“Moreover, higher global oil prices coupled with increased political uncertainty have dampened the near-term outlook in several economies in Central America,” the IMF said.
But it said there are bright spots to the outlook. It said better terms-of-trade over the past year, and improvements in consumer and business confidence have boosted the growth prospects in some Andean economies (such as Colombia, Chile, and Peru), adding that “activity is recovering in the Caribbean, reflecting the uptick in tourism owing to robust US growth”.
“Despite the slowdown in regional economic activity, private investment is showing signs of life,” Alejandro Werner, Director of the IMF’s Western Hemisphere Department, told a press conference in Bali, Indonesia.
Having contracted for three years in a row, Werner said private investment in Latin America and the Caribbean is estimated to have “stopped being a major drag to growth in 2017 and is gaining further strength.”
In the last quarter of 2017 and the first quarter of 2018, the contribution of investment to growth in the region turned positive and is projected to continue supporting the recovery this year and next, the IMF said.
Nevertheless, it said investment levels are expected to remain below the levels observed in other regions, “which would be explained in part by low saving rates”.
In this regard, the IMF said prospects for long-term growth in the region remain modest at 2.8 per cent.
It, however, said economic prospects for the Caribbean are improving.
“Growth in the region is expected to firm up this year and next, supported by robust US and global growth,” the IMF said.
“Reconstruction from the devastating hurricanes of 2017 in some tourism-dependent countries has been largely delayed so far but is expected to pick up in 2019.”
The IMF said rising commodity prices and production are projected to lead to stronger growth for commodity exporters.
It said a slowdown in global trade, owing to a range of factors – including rising protectionism, an escalation of ongoing trade disputes, fluctuations in energy prices, and an abrupt tightening of global financial conditions – “could undermine the nascent recovery and further reduce long-term growth prospects in Latin America and the Caribbean”.
The IMF said regional and domestic risks have also intensified since the spring, including political risks, regional spillovers and the recurrence of extreme weather events, such as hurricanes in the Caribbean.
It said Latin America and the Caribbean countries continue to carry primary deficits that exceed debt-stabilising levels, limiting the scope for government support.
“Higher energy prices and continued depreciation limit the room to manoeuvre interest rate policy,” it said, adding that “credible policy frameworks should guide policies and expectations over time to protect the recovery from a less benign external environment.”
“With external dollar financing needs being relatively high in some countries and capital flows ebbing, policymakers in the region should be prepared for further capital outflow pressures,” the IMF urged. “In this regard, exchange rate flexibility (where applicable) will remain key.
“Foreign exchange intervention should be limited to containing excess volatility in the event of disorderly market conditions,” it added. Implementing key reforms can build growth with widespread benefits.
“Despite the increased downside risks, many countries in the region should continue to focus on much-needed structural reforms that would boost productive capacity and help build strong, durable, and inclusive growth over the medium term,” the IMF continued.
It said reforms should focus on increasing saving and investment rates, reducing misallocation of resources, making labour markets more flexible, liberalising trade, reducing informal labour markets, and improving the business climate.